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Table 3: Rough fineness conversions for cement 11. Moir, G. K., Kelham, S., “Durability 1,” Performance Micron Mesh Blaine Cement Industry Working Party, Building Researchof Limestone-Filled Cements: Report of the Joint BRE/BCA/ 74 200 2000 Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, England, November 44 325 3000 1989.12. Kenai, S.; Menardi, B.; Attar, A.; Khatib, J., “Effect 37 400 3350 of Crushed Limestone Fines on Strength of Mortar and 30 600 3600 Durability of Concrete,” International Conference on Construction Building Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 25 710 4000 2008, pp. 205-216. 14 1410 5400 13. Feldman, R. F.; Ramachandran, V. S.; Sereda, P. J., “Influence of CaCO3 on Hydration of 3CaO.Al2O3,”Journal 7 — 7800 of the American Ceramic Society, V. 40, No 1, Jan. 1965, Note: Some of the references in this paper refer to Blaine pp. 25-30 14. Detwiler, R. J., “Effects of Cement on High Efficiency fineness and some refer to direct particle size analysis. This Separators,” RD110T, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, table is provided to allow a rough comparison to be made Illinois, 1995, pp. 25-30. between the two methods of reporting fineness. The Blaine 15. Sprung, S., and Siebel, E., “Assessment of the Fineness does not directly correlate to micron or mesh fineness. Suitability of Limestone for Producing Portland Limestone Cement (PKZ),” Zement-Kalk-Gips (translated: Cement, Lime, and Plaster), V. 44, No. 1, Jan. 1991, pp. 1-11. to produce limestone cements with equal 16. Schiller, B., and Ellerbrock, H. G., “The Grinding and properties to portland cement. A preferable bulk Properties of Cement with Several Main Constituents,” fineness range for the limestone fillers to produce Zement-Kalp-Gips (translated: Cement, Lime and Plaster), V. 45, No. 7, July 1992, pp. 325-334. a limestone cement that is comparable to the 17. Tezuka, Y.; Gomes, D.; Martins, J. M.; and Djanikian, “parent” cement would be 30 microns (approxi- J. C., “Durability Aspects of Cements with High Limestone mately 600 sieve or 3600 Blaine) and finer for Filler Content,” 9th International Congress of the Chemistry 10% limestone replacement and 15 microns of Cement, New Delhi, India, 1992, pp. 53-59. (approximately1450 sieve or 5400 Blaine) and finer for 15% limestone replacement.1,14,16,17 references Jonathan E. Dongell is 1. Hawkins, P.; Tennis, P.; Detwiler, R., “The Use of currently Director of Research Limestone in Portland Cement: A State-of-the-Art Review,” & Development at Pebble Tech- EB227, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois, 2003, nologies, Scottsdale, AZ. pp. 3-4, 18, 21-25, 31. 2. Zollinger, D., Sarkar, S., “Framework for the Devel- Dongell has worked in concrete opment of a Classification Procedure for Use of Aggregate construction and with cementi- Fines in Concrete,” Research Report ICAR–101-2F, tious materials for over 30 International Center for Aggregate Research (ICAR), October years, His roles have included 2001, pp. 5.1-5.2. Technician, Superintendent, Manager, Contractor, 3. ASTM C150/C150M-12, “Standard Specification for Portland Cement,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, and President. He was past president of both PA, 2012, pp. 157-165. Whitestone Cement Company, Scottsdale, AZ 4. ASTM C595/C595M-12(e1), “Standard Specification (1998-2005), and Universal White Cement Co, for Blended Hydraulic Cements,” ASTM International, West Inc, Glendale, AZ. (1992-1998). He is a member Conshohocken, PA, 2012, pp. 347-359. and Past Chair of ACI Committee 524, Plastering, 5. ASTM C1157/C157M-11 “Standard Specification for Hydraulic Cement,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, and is a member of ACI Committees 201, Dura- PA, 2012, pp. 561-565. bility of Concrete; 225, Hydraulic Cements; 232, 6. ACI Committee 318, “Building Code Requirements for Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete; 308, Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11) and Commentary,” American Curing Concrete; 350, Environmental Engi- Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2011, pp. 43-63. neering Concrete Structures; and 555, Concrete 7. ACI Committee 350, “Code Requirements for Envi- ronmental Engineering Concrete Structures (ACI 350-06) and with Recycled Materials; and is a former member Commentary,” American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, of ACI 116, Terminology and Notation (dis- MI, 2006, pp. 31-61. charged 2007). He currently serves on the ACI 8. Barker, A. P., and Mathews, J. D., “Concrete Durability Concrete Research Council (CRC) Committee. Specifications by Water/Cement or Compressive Strength for He is a voting member on the American Shotcrete European Cement Types,” Durability of Concrete: Third International Conference, Nice, France, 1994, pp. 1135-1159. Association (ASA) Pool & Recreational Shotcrete 9. Cochet, G., and Sorrentino, F., “Limestone-Filled Committee; American Society of Testing Materials Cements: Properties and Uses,” Mineral Admixtures in Cement (ASTM) Main Committees, and several ASTM and Concrete, ABI Books Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1993, Subcommittees, including C4.01, Cement; Lime; pp. 266-295. Gypsum; and C4.02, Concrete and Aggregates. 10. Regourd, M., “Special Cement and Cements with Additions,” Preceeding of the 8th International Congress on Dongell is also the author of several books, the Chemistry of Cement, Vol. III, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1976, including The Durability of Cementitious Mate- pp. 199-229. rials in a Water Contact Environment. 12 Shotcrete • Fall 2013


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