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absence of a need for formwork, a fast and reliable Prudêncio Jr., L. R., 1998, “Accelerating Admixture for system could be obtained. Shotcrete,” Cement and Concrete Composites, V. 20, No. 2-3, pp. 213-219. Conclusion The objective of this research project was to produce a dry-mix shotcrete material offering a very Jean-Daniel Lemay is a Research rapid strength development. This was successfully Engineer at the Research Center achieved using standard shotcreting equipment. on Concrete Infrastructures at While normal non-accelerated shotcrete usu- Laval University, Quebec City, ally needs a couple of hours before showing any QC, Canada. He received his compressive strength, it was possible to walk on bachelor’s degree in civil engi- the shotcrete developed after 10 minutes. The very neering in 2011 and his MSc in rapid hardening provides extremely high early civil engineering on shotcrete compressive strength (1740 psi 12 MPa at 1 technology from Laval University in 2013. He has hour), showing very interesting potential for been involved with every aspect of shotcrete, from emergency response. Structural damages caused nozzling to mixture design and equipment repairs, by fire in tunnels or by natural disasters on essen- for the last 5 years. He is a member of the American tial structures could be very rapidly alleviated Concrete Institute (ACI), an ACI supplemental exam- using such a mixture design in combination with iner for the Concrete Field Testing Technician Grade the dry-mix shotcrete application method. Along 1 certification and the Shotcrete Nozzleman certifica- with pre-blended bulk bags and combined with tion (both dry-mix and wet-mix), a member of ICRI, the ease of mobilization of dry-mix shotcrete and a member of the ICRI Quebec Province Chapter equipment, a fast and reliable system could be Board of Directors, Quebec City section. obtained for rapid structural emergency response. The next step toward the acceptance of this new Marc Jolin, FACI, is a Full kind of binder is field testing. While showing a Professor in the Department of traditional comportment in the laboratory, extensive Civil and Water Engineering at testing on the field must be done before it is used on Laval University. He received a large scale. his PhD from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Acknowledgments BC, Canada, in 1999. An active The authors would like to thank the Centre de member of Centre de Recherche Recherche sur les Infrastructures en Béton (CRIB) sur les Infrastructures en Béton (CRIB), he is for the funding of this research project. currently involved in projects on service life, References tures, and rheology of fresh shotcrete. Jolin is an-reinforcement encasement quality, new admix ACI Committee 506, 2005, “Guide to Shotcrete (ACI-506.R),” American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 40 pp. ASA member; an ACI Examiner for Shotcrete ACI, 2009, “Craftsman Workbook for ACI Certification Nozzleman Certification (wet- and dry-mix pro- of Shotcrete Nozzleman (CP-60(09)),” American Concrete cesses); Chair of ACI Committee C660, Shotcrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 126 pp. Nozzleman Certification; and Chair of ACI Com- ASTM C1140-03, 2003, “Standard Practice for Preparing mittee 506, Shotcreting. and Testing Specimens from Shotcrete Test Panels,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 3 pp. ASTM C1604/C1604M-05, 2005, “Standard Test Method Richard Gagné is a Professor for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores of Shotcrete,” ASTM at the Department of Civil Engi- International, West Conshohocken, PA, 5 pp. neering at the Université de Heere, R., and Morgan, D. R., 2002, “Determination of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Early-Age Compressive Strength of Shotcrete,” Shotcrete, V. 4, No. 2, Spring, pp. 28-31. Canada. He received his PhD Lamberet, S., 2005, “Durability of Ternary Binders Based in civil engineering specializing on Portland Cement, Calcium Aluminate Cement and Calcium in concrete technology from Sulfate,” PhD thesis, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Laval University. He conducts Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 237 pp. research projects in the areas of durability of Lemay, J.-D., 2013, “Développement de Béton Projeté à Ultra-Haute Résistance Initiale,” master’s thesis, Université concrete, self-healing concrete, bio-healing of Laval, Québec, QC, Canada, 127 pp. concrete, and roller-compacted concrete. Gagné Lemay, J.-D.; Jolin, M.; and Gagné, R., 2014, “Ultra High serves on several national and international com- Early Strength Shotcrete: New Binder Composition Approach,” mittees, including the International Union of Proceedings of the International Conference on Calcium Laboratories and Experts in Construction Mate- Aluminates, C. Fentiman, R. Mangabhai, and K. Scrivener, eds., IHS BRE Press, Garston, Watford, UK, pp. 253-264. rials, Systems and Structures (RILEM), Canadian Neville, A. M., 2008, Properties of Concrete, fourth Standard Association, and Bureau de Normalisa- edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, UK, 844 pp. tion du Québec. Shotcrete • Fall 2014 19


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