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Fig. 1: ACI 318-11 requirements for alternative cementitious materials for sulfate exposure1 content of the cementitious component of the proportions would be appropriate for the antici- concrete mixture. This is important because C3A pated exposure conditions. is known to be a contributing factor to sulfate attack. It is important to note that most specifications References do not allow the use of Class C fly ash. The reason 1. ACI Committee 318, “Building Code Requirements for for this is that Class C fly ash contains a significant Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11) and Commentary,” American quantity of C3A. Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2011, 503 pp.2. ASTM C1012/C1012M-13, “Standard Test Method for The importance of a strategy for mitigating Length Change of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate sulfate exposure cannot be overstated. Contact a Solution,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, consultant or your shotcrete material supplier to 2013, 8 pp. determine what materials and shotcrete mixture Mark R. Lukkarila is the Tech- nical Services Director for GCC (Grupo Cementos de Chihuahua) of America. GCC is a manufac- turer of portland cement with three cement plants in the western United States, three cement plants in Mexico, and over 80 ready mix plants in the midwestern United States. Lukkarila graduated from the University of Minnesota – Duluth with a bachelor’s degree in earth science/geology. He is a Petrographer with over 26 years of experience in the cement, concrete, aggregate, and masonry industries. Lukkarila is a member of the ASTM International and the American Concrete Institute (ACI). He is the past Chair of ACI Committee 221, Aggregates, and a member of ACI Committees 225, Hydraulic Cements; 240, Natural Pozzolans; 506, Shot- creting; and 524, Plastering. He is also a member of ASTM Committees C01, Cement; C09, Concrete and Concrete Aggregates; and C12, Mortars and Grouts for Unit Masonry; and ASTM Subcommittee C09.65, Petrography. He is Task Group Chairman for ASTM C295, and is the past Chair of ASTM C09.46, Shotcrete. Lukkarila is an ACI Certified Shotcrete Nozzleman as well as an ACI Shotcrete Nozzleman Examiner. Shotcrete • Fall 2014 29


2014FallShotcreteEMag
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