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Fig. 3: Preliminary training and shotcrete scope review with team members The underground environment is vast and greatly varied. For this reason, current ACI William T. Drakeley Jr. is nozzleman certification does not make one President of Drakeley Indus- automatically capable of properly executing a tries and W. Drakeley Swim- complex job. The ACI certification covers the ming Pool Company. Drakeley basic facets of shotcrete production and Industries is a shotcrete con- application, and is not intended to fully sulting firm that is dedicated to encompass the complex aspects of most the training and implementa- underground or heavy structural work. Our tion of the shotcrete process in current nozzleman training is limited and is not regards to building water-retaining structures, designed as “one size fits all.” Many specifiers, ground support, and underground shotcrete appli- engineers, and even shotcrete contractors are cation. Drakeley Pool Company is a design-build confused on this point. The New Austrian construction and service firm specializing in in- Tunneling Method (NATM) currently states ground, high-end commercial and residential that training programs should be developed pools. Drakeley is an active member of ACI Com- specific to job parameters. Appropriate mittee 506, Shotcreting. He is the first ACI Certi- application methods, as identified in a quality fied Shotcrete Examiner from the pool industry control and quality assurance submission, nationwide. Drakeley is also an ACI Certified would include nozzleman qualification pre- Nozzleman, ASA Technical Advisor, Chair of the mockup testing and specific pumping and ASA Pool & Recreational Shotcrete Committee, shooting techniques needed to place material and serves as Treasurer to the ASA Executive on and around blasted rock, unstable soils, Committee. His writings have been published in lattice girder, or ring steel. These components national and international trade magazines, can be adapted and qualified prior to actual including Shotcrete, WaterShapes, Pool and Spa, job commencement. and Luxury Pools. In addition, Drakeley is a In addition to job-tailored training, crews Platinum Member of the Genesis 3 Group, a should be supported by around-the-clock trainers licensed member of the Society of Water Shape and quality monitors—at least in the early phases Designers, and a member of the Association of of the job—to help crews to make the transition Pool and Spa Professionals (APSP). He is also from an aboveground shotcrete skill set (and mind the Concrete/Shotcrete Instructor at the Genesis set) to an underground one. The ultimate quality 3 Pool Construction Schools and NESPA Region of the project—and the safety of all those 1 Show in Atlantic City. As an instructor and involved—depends on it (Fig. 3). trainer, Drakeley has given lectures on shotcrete References applications for various pool trade shows and for World of Concrete. Drakeley is an expert witness 1. Schlumpf, J., and Höfler, J., Shotcrete in Tunnel Construction: Introduction to the Basic Technology of Sprayed regarding shotcrete applications for the swimming Concrete, Putzmeister AG, Aichtal, Germany, 2004, 70 pp. pool industry. 36 Shotcrete • Fall 2014


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