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2016SummerShotcreteEMag

Table 2—As-batched wet-mix shotcrete mixture proportions Mixture No. Mixture description Placement method Mixture ID Cement (Type GU), kg Fly ash, kg A1 Portland cement Cast concrete C-Cast 415 0 0 1027 691 168 0 2329 0.40 A2 Portland cement Cast wet-mix C-Wet-Mix-Cast 439 0 0 419 1256 177 0.525 2291 0.40 A3 Portland cement Shot wet-mix C-Wet-Mix-Shot 445 0 0 425 1273 179 0.533 2322 0.40 A4 Portland cement Shot wet-mix 5% accelerator C-Wet-Mix- Shot-5% 443 0 0 423 1267 179 0.530 2313 0.40 B1 Fly ash modified Cast concrete FA-Cast 334 79 0 1023 688 166 0 2319 0.40 B2 Fly ash modified Cast wet-mix FA-Wet-Mix-Cast 343 85 0 409 1224 173 0.622 2233 0.40 B3 Fly ash modified Shot wet-mix FA-Wet-Mix-Shot 351 86 0 418 1252 176 0 2284 0.40 B4 Fly ash modified Shot wet-mix 5% accelerator FA-Wet-Mix- Shot-5% 349 86 0 416 1246 176 0.633 2274 0.40 C1 Silica fume modified Cast concrete SF-Cast 379 0 34 1005 676 166 0.585 2263 0.40 C2 Silica fume modified Cast wet-mix SF-Wet-Mix-Cast 395 0 38 414 1239 175 1.259 2262 0.40 C3 Silica fume modified Shot wet-mix SF-Wet-Mix-Shot 404 0 39 422 1265 178 1.285 2310 0.40 C4 Silica fume modified Shot wet-mix 5% accelerator SF-Wet-Mix- Shot-5% 400 0 38 418 1253 177 2.036 2287 0.40 Notes: 1 kg/m3 = 1.68556 lb/yd3; 1 L/m3 = 29.5 fl oz/yd3. Table 3—Calculated dry-mix shotcrete mixture proportions Mixture No. Mixture description Placement method Mixture ID Cement (Type GU), kg Fly ash, kg A5 Portland cement Shot dry-mix C-Dry-Mix- Shot 450 0 0 430 1290 180 2351 0.40 3.20 A6 Portland cement Shot dry-mix 3% accelerator C-Dry-Mix- Shot-3% 450 0 0 430 1290 180 2351 0.40 4.20 B5 Fly ash modified Shot dry-mix FA-Dry-Mix- Shot 360 90 0 430 1290 180 2351 0.40 2.60 B6 Fly ash modified Shot dry-mix 3% accelerator FA-Dry-Mix- Shot-3% 360 90 0 430 1290 180 2351 0.40 4.10 C5 Silica fume modified Shot dry-mix SF-Dry-Mix- Shot 410 0 40 430 1290 180 2351 0.40 4.10 C6 Silica fume modified Shot dry-mix 3% accelerator SF-Dry-Mix- Shot-3% 410 0 40 430 1290 180 2351 0.40 2.60 Notes: 1 kg/m3 = 1.68556 lb/yd3; 1 L/m3 = 29.5 fl oz/yd3. dimensions of 600 x 600 x 125 mm (24 x 24 x 5 in.) were hand-cast with sufficient vibration to achieve full compaction. Wet-mix shotcrete was dry-batched and supplied in 0.76 m3 (1 yd3) bulk bin bags. It was discharged and mixed in a pan mixer with a batch size of 0.76 m3 (1 yd3) (Fig. 1). Water and the high-range water-reducing admixture were As-batched mixture proportions for 1.0 m3 Silica fume, kg Coarse aggregate (ten 5 mm, SSD), kg Fine aggregate, SSD, kg Water, L High-range water- reducing admixture, L Total mass, kg w/cm Calculated mixture proportions for 1.0 m3 Air content, as-shot, % Silica fume, kg Coarse aggregate (ten 5 mm), SSD, kg Fine aggregate, SSD, kg Estimated water, L Total mass, kg Estimated w/cm dosed and added manually. The wet-mix shotcrete pump was typical of that used in the shotcrete industry and conformed to ACI 506 requirements.5 Wet-mix shotcrete mixtures A2, B2, and C2 were mixed and cast in the field. Test panels for these mixtures were cast manually with sufficient vibration to achieve full compaction. Mixtures A3, B3, and C3 were ACI Materials Journal/May-June 2016 375 Shotcrete • Summer 2016 37


2016SummerShotcreteEMag
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